pro odborníky pro všechny

Přehled studií

Nejdůležitější literatura:

  1. Adachi, Y., Ohno, N., Ohsawa, M., Sato, K., Oikawa, S., and Yadomae, T. 1989. Physiochemical properties and antitumor activities of chemically modified derivatives of antitumor glucan "grifolan LE" from Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 37:1837-1843.
  2. Al Tuwaiji, A.S., Mahmoud, A.A., Al Mofleh, I.A., and Al Khuwaitir, S.A. 1987. Effect of glucan on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 23:363-365.
  3. Alwis, K.U., Mandryk, J., and Hocking, A.D. 1999. Exposure to biohazards in wood dust: bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Appl. Occupat. Environment. Hyg. 14:598-608.
  4. Aoyagi, K., Itoh, N., Abe, F., Uchida, K., Ishizuka, M., Takeuchi, T., and Yamaguchi, H. 1992. Enhancement by ubenimex (Betastatin) of host resistance to Candida albicans infections. J. Antibiot. 45:1778-1784.
  5. Bacon, J.S.D., and Farmer, V.S. 1968. The presence of predominantly β-(1-6)-component in preparations of yeast glucan. Biochem. J. 110:34-35P.
  6. Battilana, P., Ornstein, K., Minehira, K., Schwarz, J.M., Acheson, K., Schneiter, P., Burri, J., Jequier, E., and Tappy, L. 2001. Mechanisms of action of beta-glucan in postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 55:327-333.
  7. Bell, D.J., and Northcote, D.H. 1950. The structure of a cell-wall polysaccharide of baker’s yeast. Part II. J. Chem. Soc. 47:1944-1947.
  8. Black, W.A.P., Cornhill, W.J., Dewar, E.T., and Woodward, F.N. 1951. Manufacture of algal chemicals. III. Laboratory scale isolation of laminarin from brown marine algae. J. Appl. Chem. 1:505-507.
  9. Bobek, P., Ozdin, L., and Kuniak, L. 1996. Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus Ostreatus) and its ethanolic extract in diet on absorption and turnover of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rat. Nahrung 40:222-224.
  10. Borchers, A.T., Stern, J.S., Hackman, R.M., Keen, C.L., and Gershwin, M.E. 1999. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 221:281-293.
  11. Bousquet, M., Escoula, L., Pipy, B., Bessieres, M.H., Chavant, L., and Seguela, J.P. 1988. Two β1-3, β-1-6 polysaccharides (PSAT and Scleroglucan) enhance the resistance of mice to Toxoplasma gondii. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp. 63:398-409.
  12. Brown, J.L., Kossaczka, Z., Jiang, B., and Bussey, H. 1993. A mutational analysis of killer toxin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new genes involved in cell wall (1-->6)-beta-glucan synthesis. Genetics 133:837-849.
  13. Brown, G.D., and Gordon, S. 2003. Fungal β-glucans and mammalian immunity. Immunity 19:311-315.
  14. Brown, G.D. 2006. Dectin-1: a signalling non-TLR pattern-recognition receptor. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6:33-44.
  15. Chihara, G., Maeda, Y.Y., Hamuro, J., Sasaki, T., and Fukuoka, F. 1969. Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) sing. Nature 222:687-688.
  16. Chihara, G., Maeda, Y.Y., and Hamuro, J. 1982. Current status and perspectives of immunomodulators of microbial origin. Int. J. Tis. React. IV:207-225.
  17. Coley, W.B. 1894. Treatment of inoperable malignant tumors with the toxines of erysipelas and the Bacillus prodigiosus. Am. J. Med. Sci. 108:50-66.
  18. Cook, J.A., and Holbrook, T.W. 1984. Immunogenicity of soluble and particulate antigens from Leishmania donovani: effect of glucan as an adjuvant. Infect. Immun. 40:1038-1043.
  19. Chuah, C.T., Sarko, Y., Deslandes, Y., and Marchessault, R.H. 1983. Triple helical crystalline structure of curdlan and paramylon hydrates. Macromolecules 16:1375-1382.
  20. Descroix, K., Ferrieres, V., Jamois, F., Yvin, J.C., and Plusquellec, D. 2006. Recent progress in the field of β-(1,3)-glucans and new applications. Mini-Reviews in Med. Chem. 6:1341-1349.
  21. DiLuzio, N.R., and Riggi, S.J. 1970. The effects of laminarin, sulfated glucan and oligosaccharides of glucan on reticuloendothelial activity. J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 8:465-473.
  22. Dongowski, G., Huth, M., Gebhardt, E., and Flamme, W. 2002. Dietary fiber-rich barley products beneficially affect the intestinal tract of rats. J. Nutr. 132:3704-3714.
  23. Dritz, S.S., Shi, J., Klelian, T.L., Goodband, R.D., Nelssen, J.L., Tokach, M.D., Chengappa, M.M., Smith, J.E., and Blecha, F. 1995. Influence of dietary β-glucan on growth performance, non-specific immunity, and resistance to Streptococcus suis infection in weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3341-3350.
  24. Ebina, T., and Fujimiya, Y. 1998. Antitumor effect of a peptide-glucan preparation extracted from Agaricus blazei in a double-grafted tumor system in mice. Biotherapy 11:259-265.
  25. Fukushima, M., Ohashi, T., Fujiwara, Y., Sonoyama, K., and Nakano, M. 2001. Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats. Exp. Biol. Med. 226:758-765.
  26. Fukushima, M., Nakano, M., Morii, Y.T., Ohashi, T., Fujiwara, Y., and Sonoyama, K. 2000. Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats. J. Nutr. 130:2151-2156.
  27. Granger, D.l., Hibbs, J.B., and Perfect, J.A. 1988. Specific amino acid (L-arginine) requirement for the microbiostatic activity of murine macrophages. J. Clin. Invest. 81:1096-1102.
  28. Grün, Ch.H. 2001. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal a-glucans. Proefschrift Universiteit Utrecht.
  29. Haga, S., Akai, K., and Ishii, T. 1989. Demonstration of microglial cells in and around senile (neuritic) plaques in the Alzheimer brain. An immunohistochemical study using a novel monoclonal antibody. Acta Neuropathol. 77:569-575.
  30. Harada, T., Misaki, A., and Saitô, H. 1968. Curdlan: a bacterial gel-forming beta-1,3-glucan. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 124:292-298.
  31. Hibbs, J.B., Taintor, R.R., and Vavrin, Z. 1984. Iron depletion: possible cause of tumor cell cytotoxicity induced by activated macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123:716-723.
  32. Hong, F., Yan, J., Baran, J.T., Allendorf, D.J., Hansen, R.D., Ostroff, G.R., Xing, P.X., Cheung, N.K., and Ross, G.D. 2004. Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models. J. Immunol. 173:797-806.
  33. Hotta, H., Hagiwara, K., Tabata, K., Ito, W., and Homma, M. 1993. Augmentation of protective immune responses against Sendai virus infection by fungal polysaccharide schizophyllan. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 5:55-60.
  34. Jamas, S., Easson, D.D., Ostroff, G.R., and Onderdonk, A.B. 1991. A novel class of macrophage activity immunomofulators. ACS Symp. Ser. 1469:44-51.
  35. James, S., and Claven, J. 1989. Macrophage cytotoxicity against schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni involves arginine-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates. J. Immunol. 143:4208-4212.
  36. Jamois, F., Ferriéres, V., Guégan, J.P., Yvin, J.C., Plusquellec, D., and Větvička, V. 2005. Glucan-like synthetic oligosaccharides - Iterative synthesis of linear oligo-{β}-(1,3)-glucans and immunostimulatory effects. Glycobiology 15:393-407.
  37. Kaibara, N., Soejima, K., Nakamura, T., and Inokuchi, K. 1976. Postoperative long-term chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. Jpn. J. Surg. 6:54-59.
  38. Kimura, Y., Tojima, H., Fukase, S., and Takeda, K. 1994. Clinical evaluation of sizofilan as assistant immunotherapy in treatment of head and neck cancer. Acta Otolaryngol. (Stockh.) Suppl. 511:192-195.
  39. Kojima, T., Tabata, K., Itoh, W., and Yanaki, T. 1986. Molecular weight dependence of the antitumor activity of Schizophyllan. Agr. Biol. Chem. 50:231-232.
  40. Kraus, J., and Franz, G. 1992. Immunomodulating effects of polysaccharides from medicinal plants. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 319:299-308.
  41. Kubo, K., and Nanba, H. 1996. The effect of maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 2:62-66.
  42. Kumar, P., and Ahmad, S. 1985. Glucan-induced immunity in mice against Plasmodium bergei. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 79:211-213.
  43. Kurashige, S., Akuawa, Y., and Endo, F. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 19:175-183.
  44. Lemaitre, B., Nicolas, E., Michaut, L., Reichhart, J.M., and Hoffmann, J.A. 1996. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spatzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in Drosophila adults. Cell 86:973-983.
  45. Liang, J., Melican, D., Cafro, L., Palace, G., Fisette, L., Armstrong, R., and Patchen, M.L. 1998. Enhanced clearance of a multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus in rats treated with PGG-glucan is associated with increased leukocyte counts and increased neutrophils oxidative burst activity. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 20:595-614.
  46. Manners, D.J., Masson, A.J., Patterson, J.C., Bjorndal, H., and Lindberg, B. 1973. The structure of a beta-(1-6)-D-glucan from yeast cell walls. Biochem. J. 135:19-36.
  47. Manners, D.J., and Patterson, J.C. 1966. A re-examination of the molecular structure of yeast glucan. Biochem. J. 105:19C-20C.
  48. Matsuoka, H., Seo, Y., Wakasugi, H., Saito, T., and Tomoda, H. 1997. Lentinan potentiates immunity and prolongs survival time of some patients. Anticancer Res. 17:2751-2755.
  49. Miura, T., Miura, N.N., Ohno, N., Adachi, Y., Shimada, S., and Yadomae, T. 2000. Failure in antitumor activity by overdose of an immunomodulating beta-glucan preparation, sonifilan. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 23:249-253.
  50. Miura, N.N., Ohno, N., Adachi, Y., Aketagawa, J., Tamura, H., Tanaka, S., and Yadomae, T. 1995. Comparison of the blood clearance of triple- and single-helical schizophyllan in mice. Biol. Pharmacol. Bull. 18:185-189.
  51. Muller, C.D., Bocchini, V., Giaimis, J., Guerrieri, P., Lombard, Y., and Poindron, P. 1994. Functional beta-glucan receptor expression by a microglial cell line. Res. Immunol. 145:267-275.
  52. Nanba, H. 1995. Results of non-controlled clinical study for various cancer patients using maitake D-fraction. Explore 6:19-21.
  53. Nio, Y., Tshuchitani, T., Imai, S., Shiraishi, T., Kan, N., Ohgaki, K., and Tobe, T. 1988. Immunomodulating effects of oral administration of PSK. II. Its effects on mice with cecal tumors. Nippon Gan. Chiryo Gakkai Shi. 23:1068-1076.
  54. Nono, I., Ohno, N., Masuda, A., Oikawa, S., and Yadomae, T. 1991. Oxidative degradation of an antitumor (1-3)-beta-D-glucan, grifolan. J. Pharmacobiol. Dyn. 14:9-19.
  55. Nowotny, A. 1969. Molecular aspects of endotoxic reactions. Bact. Rev. 33:72-98.
  56. Ohno, N., Kurachi, Y., and Yadomae, T. 1988. Physicochemical properties and antitumor activities of carboxymethylated derivatives of glucan from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Chem. Pharmacol. Bull. 36:1198-1125.
  57. Ohno, N., Miura, N.N., Nakajima, M., and Yadomae, T. 2000. Antitumor 1,3-beta-glucan from cultured fruit body of Sparassis crisp., Biol. Pharm. Bull. 23:866-872.
  58. Patchen, M.L., and MacVitti, T.J. 1983. Dose-dependent responses of murine pluripotent stem cells and myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells following administration of the immunomodulating agent glucan. Immunopharmacology 5:303-313.
  59. Patchen, M.L., and MacVittie, T.J. 1985. Stimulated hemopoiesis and enhanced survival following glucan treatment insublethally and lethally irradiated mice. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 7:923-932.
  60. Pillemer, L., and Ecker, E.E. 1941. Anticomplementary factor in fresh yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 137:139-142.
  61. Quinn, P.J. 1990. Mechanisms of action of some immunomodulators used in veterinary medicine. Adv. Veter. Sci. Comp. Med. 35:43-99.
  62. Rasmussen, T.L., and Seljelid, R. 1990. Dynamics of blood compontents and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with β-1,3-D-polyglucose derivates. I. Cells. Scand. J. Immunol. 31:321-331.
  63. Rees, D.A., and Scott, W.E.J. 1971. Polysaccharide conformation. Part VI Chem. Soc. (B) 6:469-479.
  64. Ross, G.D., Vetvicka, V., Yan, J., Xia, Y., and Vetvickova, J. 1999. Therapeutic intervention with complement and b-glucan in cancer. J. Immunopharmacol. 42:61-74.
  65. Rylander, R., Thorn, J., and Attefors, R. 1999. Airways inflammation among workers in a paper industry. Eur. Respir. J. 13:1151-1158.
  66. Schepetkin, I.A., and Quinn, M.T. 2006. Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential. Int. Immunopharmacol. 6:317-333.
  67. Saitô, H., Ohki, T., Takasuka, N., and Sasaki, T. 1977. A 13C-N.M.R.-Spectral study of a gel-forming, branched (1→3)-β--glucan, (lentinan) from Lentinus edodes, and its acid-degraded fractions. Structure, and dependence of conformation on the molecular weight. Carbohydr. Res. 58:293-305.
  68. Saitô, H., Tabeta, R., Yoshioka, Y., Hara, Ch., Kiho, T., and Ukai, S. 1987. A high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR study of the secondary structure of branched (1®3)-b-d-glucans from fungi: Evidence of two kinds of conformers, curdlan-type single-helix and laminaran-type triple helix forms, as manifested from the conformation-dependent 13C chemical shifts. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 60:4267-4272.
  69. Saitô, H., Yoshioka, Y., Uehara, N., Aketagawa, J., Tanaka, S., and Shibata, Y. 1991. Relationship between conformation and biological response for (1-3)-beta-D-glucans in the activation of coagulation factor G from limulus amebocyte lysate and host-mediated antitumor. Carbohydr. Res. 217: 181-190.
  70. Sakurai, T., Hashimoto, K., Suzuki, I., Ohno, N., Oikawa, S., Masuda, A., and Yadomae, T. 1992. Enhancement of murine alveolar macrophage functions by orally administered beta-glucan. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 14:821-830.
  71. Sato, M., and Sano, H. 2003. Direct binding to Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion are down-regulated by lung collection surfactant protein. J. Immunol. 171:417-425.
  72. Shear, M.J., Turner, F.C., Perrault, A., and Shovelton, T. 1943. Chemical treatment of tumors. V. Isolation of the hemorrhage-producing fraction from Serratia marcescens (Bacillus prodigiosus) culture filtrates. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 4:81-97.
  73. Srivastava, H.C., and Adams, G.A. 1962. Preparation and properties of polysaccharide-lipid complexes from Serratia marcescens. Can. J. Chem. 40:905-918.
  74. Stratford, M. 1994. Another brick in the wall? Recent developments concerning the yeast cell envelope. Yeast 10:1741-1752.
  75. Stuehr, D.J., and Nathan, C.F. 1989. Nitric oxide. A macrophage product responsible for cytostasis and respiratory inhibition in tumor target cells. J. Exp. Med. 169:1543-1555.
  76. Suzuki, I., Sakurai, T., Hashimoto, K., Oikawa, S., Masuda, A., Ohsawa, M., and Yadomae, T. 1991. Effect of orally administered beta-glucan on macrophage function in mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39:1606-1608.
  77. Takeshita, K., Saito, N., Sato, Y., Maruyama, M., Sanagawa, M., Habu, H., and Endo, M. 1991. Diversity of complement activation by lentinan, an antitumor polysaccharide, in gastric cancer patients. Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi 92:5-11.
  78. Tanriverdi, P., Yuksel, B.C., Rasa, K., Guler, G., Iskit, A.B., Guc, M.O., and Korkmaz, A. 2005. The effects of selective nitric oxide synthase blocker on survival, mesenteric blood flow and multiple organ failure induced by zymosan. J. Surgic. Res. 124:67-73.
  79. Tsukada, C., Yokoyama, H., Miyaji, C., Ishimoto, Y., Kawamura, H., and Abo, T. 2003. Immunopotentiation of intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine by oral administrations of beta-glucan. Cell. Imunol. 221:1-5.
  80. Ueno, H. 2000. Beta-1,3-D-glucan, its immune effect and its clinical use. J. Soc. Term. Syst. Dis. 6:151-154.
  81. Underhill, D.M., Ozinsky, A., Hajjar, A.M., Stevens, A., Wilson, C.B., Bassetti, M., and Aderem, A. 1999. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature 401:811-815.
  82. Vetvicka, V., Dvorak, M., Vetvickova, J., Richter, J., Krizan, J., Sima, P., and Yvin, J.C. 2007. Orally-administered marine b1,3 glucan Phycarine stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40:291-298.
  83. Vetvicka, V., Terayama, K., Mandeville, R., Brousseau, P., Kournikakis, B., and Ostroff, G. 2002. Pilot study: orally administered yeast β1,3-glucan prophylactically protects against anthrax infection and cancer in mice. J. Am. Nutraceut. Assoc. 5:1-6.
  84. Vetvicka, V., Thornton, B.P., and Ross, G.D. 1996. Soluble b-glucan polysaccharide binding to the lectin site of neutrophil or natural killer cell complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18) generates a primed state of the receptor capable of mediating cytotoxicity of iC3b-opsonized target cells. J. Clin. Invest. 98: 50-61.
  85. Vetvicka, V., and Yvin, J.C. 2004. Effects of marine b-glucan on immune reaction. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4:721-730.
  86. Vincent, J.L., Zhang, H., Szabo, C., and Preiser, J.C. 2000. Effects of nitric oxide in septic shock. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161:1781-1785.
  87. Wagner, H., Stuppner, H., Schafer, W., and Zenk, M. 1988. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Echinacea purpurea cell cultures. Phytochem. 27:119-126.
  88. Wagnerova, J., Liskova, A., Navarova, J., Kristofova, A., Trnovec, T., and Ferencik, M. 1993. The effect of two glucan carboxymethyl derivatives with various substitution degrees on cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in mice. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 15:227-242.
  89. Werner. G.H. 1987.Prospective views on unexplored pathways of immunostimulation. In: I. Azuma and G.Jolles, eds. Immunostimulants: Now and Tomorrows, Japan Sci. Press, Tokyo/Springer Verlag, Berlin, 207-215.
  90. Whistler, R.L., Bushway, A.A., Singh, P.P., Nakahara, W., and Tokuzen, R. 1976. Noncytotoxic, antitumor polysaccharides. Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem. 32:235-275.
  91. White, T.R., Thompson, R.C., Penhale, W.J., and Chihara, G. 1988. The effects of lentinan on the resistance of mice to Mesocestoides corti. Parasitol. Res. 74:563-568.
  92. Williams, D.L., Al-Tuwaijri, A., and DiLuzio, N.R. 1980. Influence of glucan on experimental infections in mice. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 2:189-198.
  93. Williams, D.L., Yaeger, R.G., Pretus, H.A., Browder, I.W., McNamee, R.B., and Jones, E.L. 1989.Immunization against Trypanosoma cruzi: adjuvant effect of glucan. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 11:403-410.
  94. Yan, J., Vetvicka, V., Xia, Y., Coxon, A., Carroll, M.C., Mayadas, T.N., and Ross, G.D. 1999. β-glucan, a “specific” biologic response modifier that uses antibodies to target tumors for cytotoxic recognition by leukocyte complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18). J. Immunol. 163:3045-3052.
  95. Young, S.H., and Jacobs, R.R. 1998. Sodium hydroxide-induced conformational change in schizophyllan detected by the fluorescence dye, aniline blue. Carbohydr. Res. 310:91-99.
  96. Yun, C.H., Estrada, A., Van Kessel, A., Gajadhar, A., Redmond, M., and Laarveld, B. 1998. Immunomodulatory effects of oat β-glucan administered intragastrically or parenterally on mice infected with Eimeria vermiformis. Microbiol. Immunol. 42:457-465.
  97. V. Vetvicka, J. Vetvickova. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF β-GLUCAN. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2007, 151(2):225–231. 225
  98. V. Vetvicka, T. Volny, S. Saraswat-Ohri, A. Vashishta, Z. Vancikova, J. Vetvickova. GLUCAN AND RESVERATROL COMPLEX – POSSIBLE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS ON IMMUNE SYSTÉM. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2007, 151(1):41–46. 41
  99. V. Vetvicka, J. Vetvickova. A Comparison of Injected and Orally Administered β-glucans. The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008.
  100. M. Novak, V. Vetvicka. β-GLUCANS, History and the Present - Immunomodulatory Aspect and Mechanisms of Action. Journal of Immunotoxicology. 5: 47-57, 2008
  101. V. Vetvicka, A. Vashishta, S. Saraswat-Ohri, J. Vetvickova. IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECT OF YEAST- AND MUSHROOM-DERIVED β-GLUCANS

Kniha o mechanismu účinku a terapeutickém využití betaglukanů, která je určena pro odborníky i pro laické čtenáře. Podrobné informace a možnost objednání.


 
Věděli jste, že...

Řada studií prováděných v celém světě prokázala, že použití glukanu má za následek výraznou podporu krvetvorby.

Reklama